Malam Ini Akan Terjadi Fenomena Bulan Biru

JAKARTA – Malam ini, Minggu (22/8/2021) pada pukul 19:01 Wib akan terjadi fenomena Bulan Biru atau Blue Moon.

Ada dua definisi terkait Blue Moon menurut Peneliti Pusat Pusat Sains Antariksa Lembaga Penerbangan dan Antariksa Nasional (Pussainsa LAPAN), Andi Pangerang.

Pertama, Bulan Biru Musiman (Seasonal Blue Moon), yaitu Bulan Purnama ketiga dari salah satu musim astronomis yang di dalamnya terjadi empat kali Bulan Purnama.

Kedua, adalah Bulan Biru bulanan (Monthly Blue Moon), yakni Bulan Purnama kedua dari salah satu bulan di dalam kalender Masehi yang di dalamnya terjadi dua kali Bulan Purnama.

Purnama yang akan terjadi pada Minggu mendatang merupakan Bulan Biru Musiman, istilah Bulan biru dikutip dari salinan Almanak Petani Maine di Amerika Serikat edisi 1937 yang sekarang sudah tidak berfungsi.

Berdasarkan keterangan di laman resmi LAPAN, purnama tersebut dinamakan sebagai Purnama Sturgeon dikarenakan pada bulan Agustus, ikan Sturgeon (ikan penghasil kaviar) muncul ke permukaan danau sehingga mudah ditangkap.

Purnama ini juga memiliki nama lain: Purnama Jagung Hijau (Green Corn Moon), Purnama Ceri Hitam (Black Cherry Moon) dan Purnama Terbang Tinggi (Flying Up Moon).

Fenomena Bulan Biru pernah terjadi pada 19 Mei 2019 dan 22 Mei 2016, dan memang fenomena ini terjadi tiga tahun sekali, ia juga akan terjadi kembali pada 20 Agustus 2024 dan 20 Mei 2027 mengutip LAPAN. Berikut fakta-fakta Blue Moon.

Bulan tidak menjadi biru

Fenomena alam yang akan terjadi pada hari minggu nanti tidak akan memperlihatkan Bulan yang memancarkan sinar berwarna kebiruan. Dilansir dari Space, di masa lalu, ada keadaan atmosfer yang sangat tidak biasa, menyebabkan bulan dan matahari tampak kebiruan.

Hal itu disebabkan oleh aerosol antropogenik yang disuntikkan ke atmosfer seperti abu dan debu vulkanik setelah letusan gunung Krakatau pada Agustus 1883, atau asap akibat kebakaran hutan di Kanada bagian barat pada September 1950.

Karena hal tersebut, penutur cerita rakyat berkebangsaan Kanada, Philip Hiscock, mengusulkan bahwa penyebutan “Bulan Biru” bermakna bahwa ada hal yang ganjil dan tidak akan pernah terjadi.

Kali ini tidak ada hal seperti demikian, jadi purnama yang akan disaksikan pada akhir pekan ini akan terlihat seperti biasanya.

Di halaman Almanak untuk Agustus 1937, arti kalender untuk istilah “Bulan Biru” diberikan. Penjelasan tersebut mengatakan bahwa bulan purnama biasanya datang penuh dua belas kali dalam setahun, tiga kali untuk setiap musim. Namun kadang-kadang, akan datang tahun ketika ada tiga belas bulan purnama.

Kemunculan bulan purnama ketiga belas itu dianggap sebagai keadaan yang sangat disayangkan karena mengacaukan Peringatan Hari Besar Kristen seperti Prapaskah dan Paskah yang menggunakan Bulan Purnama.

Karena alasan tersebut angka tiga belas dianggap sebagai angka sial. Dengan bulan purnama ekstra itu, itu juga berarti bahwa salah satu dari empat musim tahun itu akan berisi empat bulan purnama, bukan tiga seperti biasanya.

Ketika musim tertentu memiliki empat bulan purnama, yang ketiga tampaknya disebut Bulan Biru sehingga yang keempat dan terakhir dapat terus disebut “bulan akhir”.

Fenomena langka

Bulan Biru Musiman terjadi sedikit lebih jarang daripada Bulan Biru bulanan, dalam 1100 tahun antara 1550 dan 2650, hanya ada 408 Bulan Biru Musiman sedangkan Bulan Biru Bulanan ada 456.

Dengan demikian, Bulan Biru, baik Musiman atau Bulanan hanya terjadi kira-kira setiap dua atau tiga tahun. Sedangkan untuk Bulan Biru, yang benar-benar memancarkan cahaya biru, kemunculannya sangatlah langka.

Tidak ada hubungannya dengan kalender, fase Bulan atau jatuhnya musim, melainkan akibat dari kondisi atmosfer. Hanya abu vulkanik, droplet di udara, atau jenis awan tertentu dapat menyebabkan Bulan Purnama tampak kebiruan.

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